Reliability is established using a pilot test by collecting data from 20-30 subjects not included in the sample.
Data collected from pilot test is analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) or another software. These are "correlation matrix" and "view alpha if item deleted" column.
Which type of validity (content, construct, criterion, and face) to use depends on the objectives of the study.
To assess reliability of knowledge questions, test-retest or split-half is appropriate. Determining who is the audience, their background, especially their educational/readability levels, access, and the process used to select the respondents (sample vs. A thorough understanding of the problem through literature search and readings is a must.Good preparation and understanding of Step1 provides the foundation for initiating Step 2.For example, if ANOVA (analysis of variance) is one mode of data analysis, the independent variable must be measured on a nominal scale with two or more levels (yes, no, not sure), and the dependent variable must be measured on a interval/ratio scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).
As a result of Steps 1-3, a draft questionnaire is ready for establishing validity.
Questionnaires are the most frequently used data collection method in educational and evaluation research.